100% Pure Beeswax is a substance secreted by the four pairs of wax glands under the bee's belly.
At room temperature, beeswax is solid, soft, light yellow, yellow or dark brown, with honey and bee pollen-like aroma, chews finely and sticky teeth, no oily smell, greasy by hand and can soften, The refractive index of beeswax is about 1.45, the relative density is about 0.95, the iodine value is 6-13g/100g, the saponification value is 75-110mg/g, the acid value of middle beeswax is 4-9mg/g, and the acid value of western beeswax is 15-23mg /g. The melting point of beeswax is not a fixed value. The temperature range is 62°C-67°C. When the temperature is 32°C-35°C, beeswax has plasticity. When the beeswax is extruded, its molecular structure is destroyed and its plasticity is strong. At 40 ℃, although beeswax looks solid, it has actually begun to melt. When heated above 85 ℃, beeswax will fade. Beeswax is insoluble in water, miscible with lipids, oils and other waxes, soluble in many organic solvents such as ether and chloroform, and soluble in alcohol after heating. In addition, natural beeswax has strong plasticity, good lubricity, and has the advantages of insulation, moisture resistance, and avoiding surface erosion. These excellent characteristics provide the possibility of application in various fields.
Regardless of how beeswax is classified, the chemical components are roughly the same, but the content of each chemical component is different. It has been found through research that Beeswax is composed of more than 300 compounds. The main chemical components include: esters (70%-72%) formed by alkanols and alkanoic acids, free fatty acids (14%-15%), and mainly saturated hydrocarbons of hydrocarbons (12%), including some free fatty alcohols, water and minerals, as well as small amounts of flavonoids, vitamins, pigments, etc. Xu Jingyao and others found that the content of monolipids in middle beeswax reached 54.0%, which was lower than that of western beeswax; the ester content formed by palmitic acid and triosyl alcohol was 21%; the hydrocarbon content of middle beeswax was higher than that of western beeswax; The free acid of beeswax is also lower than that of western beeswax. The emergence of gas liquid chromatography allows us to accurately and quantitatively detect the chemical composition of beeswax.
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